Biogenic Amines

Title Summary Year
Effect of dynamic and static strength training on hormonal activity in elite boxers The research shows that dynamic and static strength exercise protocols using resistance bands both could provoke acute and chronic hormonal responses in boxers similar to more traditional modes of such exercise. Plasma adrenaline and noradrenaline measured with Chromsystems HPLC assay. 2020
Correlation between cognition and plasma noradrenaline level in Alzheimer’s disease: a potential new blood marker of disease evolution In this study, we showed for the first time that noradrenaline in plasma was correlated with Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) score in the context of Alzheimers. Noradrenalin was measured with the catecholamine assay from Chromsystems.  2020
Immunological and behavioral responses to in vivo lipopolysaccharide administration in young and healthy obese and normal-weight humans the population of young and healthy obese individuals in this study did not exhibit an increased behavioral sensitivity to cytokines, but an attenuated cortisol response to the immune challenge. Noradrenaline was measured with Chromsystems assay.  2020
Metabolic and catecholamine response to sympathetic stimulation in early-treated adult male patients with phenylketonuria PKU itself might not influence stress-induced catecholamine changes. Only strenuous exercise increased blood Phe levels in PKU subjects. Catecholamines was measured with the Chromsystems HPLC assay 2020
Time courses of HMGB1 and other inflammatory markers after generalized convulsive seizures Our study reveals signs of inflammation, neuronal damage and transitory disruption of BBB following single GCS, underscoring the widespread and possibily detrimental effects of recurrent seizures on brain properties. The long term impact on the disease course, however, is unclear. Noradrenalin measured by HPLC with Chromsystems 2020
Autonomic cardiovascular control changes in recent heart transplant recipients lead to physiological limitations in response to orthostatic challenge and isometric exercise HTxRs are characterized by elevated blood pressures and total peripheral resistance at supine rest as well as attenuated blood pressures and total peripheral resistance responses during orthostatic challenge, possibly caused by low-pressure cardiopulmonary baroreceptor denervation. Noradrenaline and adrenaline were measured by the HPLC assay from Chromsystems 2019
Evaluation of body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in patients with non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas and an intermediate phenotype: Is there an association with metabolic syndrome? adrenal incidentaloma presented high frequency of metabolic syndrome. Possible deleterious effects of cortisol secretion seem to initially affect the muscular system, according to the paper that used the Chromsystems assay to determine pheochomocytoma.  2019
Glucose homeostasis in major depression and schizophrenia: a comparison among drug-naïve first-episode patients onsidering previous studies in this field, major depression  may be related to impaired glucose/insulin homeostasis in the long-term but not in early disease stages. Catecholamines and metanephrines measured with Chromsystems HPLC assays.  2019
Noncardiac Versus Cardiac Mortality in Heart Failure With Preserved, Midrange, and Reduced Ejection Fraction Noncardiac death is a major determinant of outcome in stable HF, exceeding cardiac-related mortality in HFpEF and HFmrHF. Noradrenaline and adrenaline measured with Chromsystems HPPLC assay 2019
Sex Differences in Stress and Immune Responses During Confinement in Antarctica Stated sex differences were shown to be independent of enhanced psychological stress and seem to be related to the
environmental conditions. However, sources and consequences of these sex differences have to be further elucidated.. catecholamine concentrations was executed at the Institute of Clinical Chemistry,
University of Munich, Munich, Germany, using HPLC
(Chromsystems, Martinsried, Germany). 
The effects of DPP4 inhibitors on the levels of plasma catecholamines and their metabolites in patients with type 2 diabetes Our results suggest that although sympathetic activity is lower in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured by HPLC with the Chromsystems assay 2019
Aminergic Signaling Controls Ovarian Dormancy in Drosophila Our findings enhance our understanding of the ability of organisms to cope with unfavorable environments and illuminate some of the relevant signaling pathways.. Dopamine measured by HPLC with Chromsystems assay 2018
Antidopaminergic medication in healthy subjects provokes subjective and objective mental impairments tightly correlated with perturbation of biogenic monoamine metabolism and prolactin secretion The authors found consistent associations between altered markers of dopamine transmission and several objective and subjective mental impairments in healthy volunteers after 1 week's treatment with antidopaminergic medications. Catecholamines measured with Chromsystems HPLC assay.  2018
Effects of blood glucose on delay discounting, food intake and counterregulation in lean and obese men The results imply that delay discounting is not susceptible to fluctuations of blood glucose and do not support the assumption that a low body’s energy content leads to increased impulsivity. Adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured by HPLC with the Chromsystems assay 2018
Kv7(KCNQ)-K+-Channels Influence Total Peripheral Resistance in Female but Not Male Rats, and Hamper Catecholamine Release in Hypertensive Rats of Both Sexes The authors analyse the influence of Kv7KCNQ- family of channels in rats. Noradrenaline and adrenaline were measured with a Chromsystems HPLC assay.  2018
Learned immunosuppressive placebo responses in renal transplant patients adrenaline and noradrenaline were measured by the HPLC assay from Chromsystems 2018
  metabolomic and lipidomic strategies suggested potential early biomarkers in obstructive sleep apnoea that could also be helpful in screening for this sleep disorder beyond traditional questionnaires. Catehcolamines measured with Chromsystems assay.  2018
Effect of a pre-exercise hydrocortisone dose on short-term physical performance in female patients with primary adrenal failure The patients did not benefit from an extra dose of hydrocortisone in short strenuous exercise. Stress dosing may not be justified in this setting. Whether stress dosing is beneficial in other types of physical activity will have to be examined further.Noradrenalin and adrenalin was measured by HPLC 2016
Adrenergic System Activation Mediates Changes in Cardiovascular and Psychomotoric Reactions in Young Individuals after Red Bull (©) Energy Drink Consumption  This study demonstrated that Red Bull(©) has beneficial effect on some cognitive functions and effect on cardiovascular and respiratory system at rest and during exercise by increasing activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Noradrenaline and adrenaline measured with Chromsystems HPLC assay.  2015
Altered β1-3-adrenoceptor influence on α2-adrenoceptor-mediated control of catecholamine release and vascular tension in hypertensive rats β2AR activity was a required substrate for α2AR auto inhibition of norepinephrine release in WKY. β1+2AR opposed α2AR inhibition of norepinephrine release in SHR and epinephrine secretion in both strains. βAR-α2AR reciprocal control of vascular tension was absent in SHR. Selective agonist provoked β3AR-Gi signaling and influenced the tyramine-induced TPR-response in WKY and catecholamine release in SHR. Catecholamines measured with Chromsystems HPLC assay.  2015
Combined scintigraphy and tumor marker analysis predicts unfavorable histopathology of neuroblastic tumors with high accuracy Strong 123I-MIBG uptake and high serum level of neuron specfiic enolase (EN) were each predictive of unfavorable histopathology (H).  Combined analysis of both parameters improved the prediction of UH in patients with neuroblastic tumor. MRI parameters and urine catecholamine levels did not predict UH.catecholamines, metanephrines, VMA, HVA, 5-HIAA all measured with Chromsystems HPLC assays.  2015
Effects of intra-abdominal pressure on adrenal gland function and morphology in rats esults support that increased IAH leads to discharge of catecholamine and corticosterone from the adrenal glands. Failure to demonstrate similar changes in apoptotic index score may be concluded as apoptosis is not a leading pathway for impairment of adrenal glands during IAH period. Adrenaline and noradrenaline measured with Chromsystems HPLCassay.  2015
Effects of low-dose clonidine on cardiovascular and autonomic variables in adolescents with chronic fatigue: a randomized controlled trial Low-dose clonidine reduces catecholamine levels in adolescent Chronic Fatigue Syndrome but the effects on autonomic cardiovascular control are sparse. Clonidine does not improve symptoms of orthostatic intolerance. Catecholamines measured with Chromsystems HPLC assay 2015
Psychosocial stress increases salivary alpha-amylase activity independently from plasma noradrenaline levels These data suggest that in response to acute psychological stress both plasma noradrenaline levels and salivary alpha-amylase Activity reflect sympathetic activity, however seemed to increase independently from each other. Noradrenaline measured with Chromsystems HPLC assay.  2015
Report of two never treated adult sisters with aromatic L-amino Acid decarboxylase deficiency: a portrait of the natural history of the disease or an expanding phenotype?  The present cases broaden the phenotypic spectrum of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) deficiency. Noradrenaline and adrenaline measured with Chromsystems HPLC assay.  2015
The relation between the effect of a subhypnotic dose of thiopental on claw pain threshold in rats and adrenalin, noradrenalin and dopamine levels The present study shows that to achieve analgesic activity, TPS needs to be applied together with ADR. Catecholamines measured by HPLC 2015 The present study shows that to achieve analgesic activity, thiopental sodium (TPS) needs to be applied together with ADR. Measured with chromsystems HPLC assay for catecholamines.  2015
Fat oxidation, hormonal and plasma metabolite kinetics during a submaximal incremental test in lean and obese adults the data indicate that there are important implications for the appropriate exercise intensity prescription in training programs designed to optimize fat oxidation in obese people. Noradrenaline and adrenaline were measured with Chromsystems HPLC assay 2014
Intranasal insulin suppresses systemic but not subcutaneous lipolysis in healthy humans Findings indicate that brain insulin controls systemic lipolysis in healthy humans by predominantly acting on non-sc adipose tissue. Catecholamines measured with Chromsystems HPLC assay.  2014
Relationship between vagal tone, cortisol, TNF-alpha, epinephrine and negative affects in Crohn's disease and irritable bowel syndrome hese data argue for an imbalance between the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis and the vagal tone in Crohn's disease (CD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Noradrenlaine and adrenaline measured with Chromsystems HPLC assay.  2014
Subarachnoid hemorrhage induces an early and reversible cardiac injury associated with catecholamine release: one-week follow-up study Findings show that cardiac dysfunction seen early after  subarachnoid hemorrhage was associated with both a rapid and sustained endogenous catecholamine release and WFNS score. SAH-induced cardiac dysfunction was regressive over the first week and paralleled the normalization of catecholamine concentration. Noradrenaline and adrenaline measured with HPLC assay from Chromsystems 2014
Targeting chelatable iron as a therapeutic modality in Parkinson's disease The therapeutic features of a chelation modality established in translational models and in pilot clinical trials warrant comprehensive evaluation of symptomatic and/or disease-modifying potential of chelation in Parkinson's disease. Dopamine and metabolites measured with Chromsystems HPLC assay.  2014
Blocking mineralocorticoid receptors impairs, blocking glucocorticoid receptors enhances memory retrieval in humans Findings indicate indeed opposing roles of mineralocorticoid (MR) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)  in memory retrieval, with optimal retrieval at intermediate cortisol levels likely mediated by high MR but concurrently low GR activation. Noradrenaline and adrenaline measured with Chromsystems assay.  2013
Coronary aspirate TNFα reflects saphenous vein bypass graft restenosis risk in diabetic patients In diabetics, particulate debris and coronary aspirate plasma contained more TNFα, which might reflect the activity of the underlying atherosclerotic process. Noradrenaline and adrenaline with Chromsystems HPLC assay measured.  2013
Intermittent levosimendan treatment in patients with severe congestive heart failure ntermittent LS treatments decreased effectively and repetitively plasma vasoactive peptide levels, but no carryover effects were observed. Patients' symptoms decreased for the whole study period although there was no objective improvement of their exercise capacity. The prognostic significance of these effects needs to be further studied. epineprhine and norepinephrine measured by HPLC. 2013
Relation between proepileptic activity of indomethacin and adrenal gland hormones Over-reduction in the blood catecholamine level made epileptogenesis more severe. Noradrenaline and adrenaline measured with HPLC assay from Chromsystems.  2012
The brain's supply and demand in obesity The authors conclude that the brain of obese people organizes its need, supply, and demand in a low reactive manner. Noradrenaline and adrenaline measured with Chromsystems assay.  2012
Selective attenuation of norepinephrine release and stress-induced heart rate increase by partial adenosine A1 agonism results suggest that partial adenosine A(1)-agonism dampens stress-induced tachycardia selectively in rats susceptible to strong increases in sympathetic activity, most likely due to a presynaptic attenuation of neurotransmitter norepinephrine release. Adrenaline and noradrenaline measured with Chromsystems assay.  2011
How the selfish brain organizes its supply and demand The authors conclude that the brain under stressful conditions demands for energy from the body by using a mechanism, which we refer to as "cerebral insulin suppression" and in so doing it can satisfy its excessive needs. Noradrenaline and adrenaline were measured with Chromsystems HPLC assay.  2010
Medium chain acylcarnitines dominate the metabolite pattern in humans under moderate intensity exercise and support lipid oxidation Medium chain acylcarnitines were identified and characterized by a functional metabolomics approach as the dominating biomarkers during a moderately intense exercise bout possessing the power to support fat oxidation. Adrenaline and noradrenaline measured with Chromsystems assay.  2010
Reason for the aggravation of diseases caused by inflammation and the ineffectiveness of NSAIDs on these diseases in rainy weather  Indomethacin, diclofenac, meloxicam and nimesulide were found to exert anti-inflammatory effects by decreasing adrenaline levels but not affecting corticosterone levels. The anti-inflammatory effects of the tested drugs was eliminated on rainy days due to the low level of corticosterone. Catecholamines were measured in serum/plasma with Chromsystems HPLC assay. 2009
Effects of meal timing on changes in circulating epinephrine, norepinephrine, and acylated ghrelin concentrations: a pilot study In conclusion, E/NE concentrations were higher after the morning meal, while AG showed an opposite behavior. These data, although requiring confirmation in larger samples, suggest an adjunctive possible mechanism explaining the unfavorable effects of evening eating on metabolic risk. NE and E measured with our HPLC assay.  

Please find here publications as guides for reference ranges or therapeutic ranges. As they may differ from other published data. Data vary depending on patient population and measurement method, please determine ranges for your laboratory. When determining ranges make sure that you comply with local national requirements. 

Title Summary Year
Gressner A.M., Arndt T. (Eds). Lexikon der Medizinischen Laboratoriumsdiagnostik, 3rd edition, Springer Verlag (2019).   Book with reference values 2019
Symptom-dependent cut-offs of urine metanephrines improve diagnostic accuracy for detecting pheochromocytomas in two separate cohorts, compared to symptom-independent cut-offs Using symptom-dependent cut-offs of urine metanephrines in symptomatic patients for pheochromocytomas resulted in a significant improvement in diagnostic accuracy in two separate cohorts.  2016
Levodopa Therapy in Parkinson's Disease: Influence on Liquid Chromatographic Tandem Mass Spectrometric-Based Measurements of Plasma and Urinary Normetanephrine, Metanephrine and Methoxytyramine These data establish that although levodopa treatment confounds identification of PPGLs that produce dopamine, the therapy is not a problem for use of LC-MS/MS measurements of plasma and urinary normetanephrine and metanephrine to diagnose more commonly encountered PPGLs that produce noradrenaline or adrenaline. 2014
Measurements of Plasma Methoxytyramine, Normetanephrine, and Metanephrine as Discriminators of Different Hereditary Forms of Pheochromocytoma  The distinct patterns of plasma catecholamine O-methylated metabolites in patients with hereditary pheochromocytoma provide an easily used tool to guide cost-effective genotyping of underlying disease-causing mutations. 2011
Metanephrines: Implications for Diagnosis of Catecholamine-Producing Tumors Dietary restrictions should be considered to minimize false-positive results for urinary and plasma deconjugated MNs during diagnosis of pheochromocytoma. Similar considerations appear warranted for plasma and urinary free 3-MT, but not for free NMN or MN, indicating advantages of measurements of the free compared to deconjugated metabolites. 2009
Reference Intervals for Urinary Catecholamines and Metabolites From Birth to Adulthood data provide age-appropriate reference ranges for the diagnosis of tumors from neural crest in children. 2009
Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of Urinary Free Metanephrines, Vanillyl Mandelic Acid, and Catecholamines and Plasma Catecholamines for Diagnosis of Pheochromocytoma Urinary free metanephrines were superior to urinary VMA, urinary catecholamines, and plasma catecholamines and can provide a valuable test for diagnosis of pheochromocytoma in adults. 2007
Thomas L. (ed)- Labor und Diagnose, 8th edition, TH books (2012) Book with reference values  
Reference intervals for urinary catecholamines and metabolites from birth to adulthood The data of the study provide age-appropriate reference ranges for the diagnosis of tumors from neural crest in children. 2009